Sunday, December 8, 2019

Reforms In The Education Industry Of Australia

Question: Describe about the Reforms In The Education Industry Of Australia. Answer: Introduction Education is one of the most sought after sectors of Australia in recent times. Off-lately the said sector has become a major contributor to the revenue of the country. The recent five years has shown some of the striking changes in the education industry of Australia. Private sector has emerged successfully so much that it has outpaced the government sector. These private educational institutions are concentrated in providing English language as a part of the main subject. The tutoring business has also extended a supportive arm for nurturing the said language in the country. Another very important development in the said industry has been in providing online education and infusing technology into the system as well. Australia has been well known in imparting education at international level thus attracting students from across the globe. The Country has emerged as one of the top most education providers after the US, UK, Germany and France. Annually, Australia draws at least 45000 students internationally covering 200 countries (investinaustralia.com, 2016). After tourism, education is Australias second largest export service sector. Body The education in Australia can be divided into four different segments. They are as under: Early Childhood and Education care Schools Vocational Educational and Training (VET) Higher Education Since education is one of the most important sectors of the Country, reforms have been bought in all these segments, especially in the VET and the higher education segment. Firstly comes the early childhood and care segment which primarily caters to the citizens of the country. Experiencing a childhood which is happy and thus helps to imbibe a positive attitude within children. Research has proved that a family which imparts quality time and surroundings to their children, proper education during their years of nurturing and adequate care and family support programmes, give rise to children who are inclined towards education and is beneficial for the child as well as the society as a whole. The Government of Australia got involved in the year 1972 with regards the child care financing. It established family day care schools so as to mark a significant change in the workforce which would comprise of more of women population. The cost was divided amongst the Commonwealth Government and the state and territory governments as the number of day care schools demand increased. To enable that the services provided these child care schools were of high quality it introduced the Quality Improvement and Accreditation System(unesco.org, 2015). Thus although much of reform was not possible in this segment, yet the introduction of child care systems enabled the women to work as well and also provided the children an exposure to a more organized surrounding. Second segment is that of school which is also restricted basically for the citizens of Australia only with few exceptions. Here the Australian Governments role emerges as a national leader. The government is on a continuous job of partnering with the state and the territories and the private schools as well including Catholics. Under the Governments Students First package of reforms, attention is given to four main areas i.e. the quality of the teachers, the self-sufficiency of the educational institution, involvement of parents and revisiting the Australian Curriculum. The said reform also includes a close association with Australian Government Department of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet so as to warrant that the conventional policy, programmes and the service delivery caters to the improvisation of the outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students as well. In the year 2008, all the Australian Education ministers agreed to The Melbourne Declaration which pronounced the following two aims. Firstly is that the Australian schools enables imparting excellence and equality in the education and secondly all the young citizens of the country become confident, creative and responsible people (Australian Council for Private Education and Training, 2015). The government supports via innumerable programs and also financially as well to the state and the territories so that the public and the private schools develop quality educational system. From the year 2014, repetitive funding to the schools at both the private as well as the public level has been, basis their requirements as guided in the Australian Education Act 2013. The main motto of this Act is to ensure that the system delivers a superior quality and exceedingly impartial edification to all the students and perform to COAG targets for school education. Further to this the government is working with the state and territory school authorities to make amendments in the Act so as to conform that the authority of the public schools are within their reach and the private schools are being able to maintain their independence too. Thirdly is the reform in the Vocational education and training segment which is of utmost importance as this systems helps to drill in such skills which is needed for the prosperity of the economy as it entails to deliver jobs which is industry specific. The Australian Government has boarded on a noteworthy reform in the VET system of the country. The main reason for the said reform is to ensure that the quality of the skills are bettered along with the status of VET which is a necessity so as to be able to serve the future skills needs of the economy. The quality is what matters both of the trainers as well as the curriculum for enhancement of the role that VET plays in the employment prospects of the students. The main objectives behind introduction of reform in the VET system are echoed in the below mentioned four main themes. The responsiveness of the industry The quality and regulation Funding and governance Data and consumer information Source: education.gov.au, (2016) The training documents and prospectus are prepared in consultation with the specific industries so that the workers are trained accordingly. The directives of the VET segment besides the national standards are basically regulated by the Australian Skills and Quality Authority (ASQA). Presently the government is looking towards modernisation of the VET segment. The first reform set which was introduced in the year 2013 mainly concentrates upon the simplification and streamlining of the control and the dogmatic arrangements of the VET system. This would entail the system to be pro towards the industry requirements. The Government has time-honoured a VET Advisory Board which gives suggestions to the Ministers and the Department of Industry on the reform priorities for VET. The reform agenda is concentrating upon addressing the issue of the apprenticeship completion rate which is just at around 50 percent presently. A new Australian Support Network is expected to give advice, support, and job matching and counselling to the trainees as of July 2015. Unfortunately the stipends that these trainees get is very low and hence to support the same the Government has also introduced the Trade Support Loans of $20000 which would enable them to complete their training programs without any financial hitches. Further to these reforms lies the $476 million Industry Skills Fund. The new reforms being introduced, the Government is eyeing at altering the ASQAs funding modality. Earlier the teachers had to contemplate their attention towards proving their conformity adjacent to the intricate set of laws. But now the amended reform aims to applaud those teachers and trainers who have proven to be at low-risk with the greater autonomy. Thus ASQA will spend more time in focussing upon those teachers who are unable to deliver good quality results. ASQA would also help these trainers become aware of what is expected out of them. Thus the VET reform agenda is an important part of the Governments upcoming National Industry Investment and Competitiveness Agenda. However as per an announcement made by the federal Education Minister Simon Birmingham, the vocational education industry facades disorder for a year and the vision of justifiable workers being crippled by the Governments sweeping revamp of the segment. The present regulations will lead to putting greater hurdles to the entry of new teachers, regulate the appropriate courses to those deemed to impart good job prospects and introduce stricter compliances and compensation conditions (Munro, 2016). The loans that would be available for the students would be capped to the extent of the courses that match the needs of the industry and it would be limited to three caps $5000, $10000 and $15000. This amount would create a huge gap which the students would be forced to pay upfront. This is however a matter of great concern which would lead to downsizing of the said segment considerably thus hitting the Australian economys welfare as well. The fourth and the last segment in which reform plays a very critical role is the higher education wherein the Higher Education Funding Act 1988 was the first guiding legislation introduced. The same was replaced after two and a half decades by the Higher Education Support Act 2003. More so, recently the Government introduced the Higher Education and Research Reform Amendment Bill 2014. This is the most important segment which drives the prosperity of the economy of the country. The higher education alone totals for two third of the education exports. Therefore the main aim for introducing this amendment in the Act was to rope in more students by giving them opportunities which would include students who belong to the disadvantaged and regional areas also and prepare the universities to confront the challenges of the present scenario. Under the reform spelt out by the Government the universities will be able to provide Commonwealth supported areas on demand basis to the students who are enrolling themselves for the accredited undergraduate qualifications (Dow, 2016). The Australian Government is also introducing the policy of giving tuition grants to the undergraduate students who are getting education from any registered higher education donor for any ascribed course. Further to help the underprivileged students, the Government has proposed a Commonwealth scholarship scheme in which $1 in every $5 of extra income earned via deregulation of the fees and the charges will support accessibility to such students. Therefore the higher education mainly aims at easing out thus attracting the international students to enrol for various graduate and undergraduate courses (Knott, 2014). The net appreciation in the value by the said sector for year 2014-15 can be understood with the help of the following chart. Source: Deloitte Access Economics, (2015) The international education has been Australia top two export service with tourism and is one of the five major growing sectors of the Australian economy which will help to bring in a remarkable change in the coming decade. Its significance is understood by the data released by The Department of Education and Training (2016) that more than 100000 jobs are created for the benefit of the organizations and the business hubs in various sectors such as retail, wholesale, hospitality etc. The value of international education is more than $19.5 billion in the year 2015 which makes it one of the major source of export income. Thus the international education offers many more benefits to the economically and socially as well. The same can be summarised in the below mentioned figure. Source: Gallagher, 2014 Conclusion Thus it is understood that all the four segments are important for the education industry of the country, but the reform in the VET and the higher education segment is more of value in terms of export earnings. The reforms introduced in the higher education sector are not as fundamental as the demonisers of the various competitive markets but are still extraordinary as it has to be if the country wishes to be competitive with the global knowledge economy. Lastly, the continents mixture of a demand-driven policy of financing, a national higher education regulator and a set procedure for income-contingent loans enables the country to follow the path the path of micro-economic reform of the education industry in a more easy manner. References: Australian Council for Private Education and Training, (2015), Microeconomic Reform, Available at https://www.erawa.com.au/cproot/11706/2/Australian%20Council%20for%20Private%20Education%20and%20Training%20-%20Public%20Submission%20-%20Inquiry%20into%20Microeconomic%20Reform%20Issues%20Paper.pdf (Accessed 29th November 2016) Deloitte Access Economics, (2015), The value of international education to Australia, Available at https://internationaleducation.gov.au/research/research-papers/Documents/ValueInternationalEd.pdf (Accessed 29th November 2016) Dow, C., (2016), Reform of the higher education demand driven system (revised), Available at https://www.aph.gov.au/about_parliament/parliamentary_departments/parliamentary_library/pubs/rp/budgetreview201415/higheredu (Accessed 29th November 2016) education.gov.au, (2016), Vocational Education and Training Reform, Available at https://www.education.gov.au/vocational-education-and-training-reform (Accessed 29th November 2016) investinaustralia.com, (2016), Education and Training Industry in Australia, Available at https://www.investinaustralia.com/industry/education-training/education-training-industry-australia (Accessed 29th November 2016) Gallagher, M., (2014), Micro-economic Reform of the Australian higher education industry: Implications of the Abbott Governments Budget of 13 May 2014, Available at https://go8.edu.au/sites/default/files/docs/article/edutech_presentation_-_4_june_2014-pdf_version.pdf (Accessed 29th November 2016) Munro, K., (2016), Vocational education industry reforms could cripple quality providers, The Sydney Morning Herald [Online], Available at https://www.smh.com.au/national/education/vocational-education-industry-reforms-could-cripple-quality-providers-20161005-grvaye.html (Accessed 29th November 2016) Knott, M., (2014), Government backs down on some higher education reforms, The Sydney Morning Herald [Online], Available at https://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/government-backs-down-on-some-higher-education-reforms-20141023-11asnr.html (Accessed 29th November 2016) The Department of Education and Training, (2016), Australias international education sector worth more than previously estimated, Available at https://ministers.education.gov.au/colbeck/australias-international-education-sector-worth-more-previously-estimated (Accessed 29th November 2016) unesco.org, (2015), Australia- Education for all 2015 National Review, Available at https://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002310/231060e.pdf (Accessed 29th November 2016)

Sunday, December 1, 2019

What is Linguistics Essay Example For Students

What is Linguistics? Essay What is Linguistics ? Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It endeavors to answer the questionwhat is language and how is represented in the mind? Linguists focus on describing and explaining language and are not concerned with the prescriptive rules of the language. Linguistics is a social science that shares common ground with other social sciences such as psychology, anthropology, sociology and archaeology. It also may influence other disciplines such as English, communication studies and computer science. Linguistics for the most part though can be considered a cognitive science. Along with psychology, philosophy and computer science AI, linguistics is ultimately concerned with how the human brain functions. The fields of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and language acquisition are considered the core fields of study and a firm knowledge of each is necessary in order to tackle more advanced subjects.  · Phonetics  · Phonology  · Morphology  · Syntax  · Semantics  · Language Acquisition Other Disciplines  · Sociolinguistics: Sociolinguistics is the study of interrelationships of language and social structure, linguistic variation, and attitudes toward language. We will write a custom essay on What is Linguistics? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Neurolinguistics: Neurolinguistics is the study of the brain and how it functions in the production, preception and acquistion of language.  · Historical Linguistics: Historical linguistics is the study of language change and the relationships of languages to each other.  · Anthropological Linguistics: Anthropological linguistics is the study of language and culture and how they interact.  · Pragmatics: Pragmatics studies meaning in context. As mention above linguistics is a very vast field and it cover a lot of latest issues. But I select two issues for my project. Historical Linguistics Animal communication system Language: Language is a way of communicating our ideas and thoughts to other fellow beings. According to an ancient linguist of India, Patanjali, language is that human expression which is utter out by speech organs. In the Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 13, language is defined as a system of conventional, spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communication, Language can also define as 1. A system for representing things, actions, ideas and states 2. A tool people use to communicate their concepts of reality into the minds of others 3. A system of meanings shared among people 4. A code that members of a linguistic community use to mediate between form and meaning 5. A set of utterances that could be understood by a linguistic community Animal communication system Human speech is commonly recognized as the dividing line between ourselves and the rest of the animal world. The reason why the ability to speak is such a sharply defined boundary goes deeper than the mere existence of a method of communication, it is what we have done with language that counts. Language paved the way for all the special human abilities that we so value- self-awareness, higher emotion and personal memories as we search into the origin, variety and composition of human language, it is important to examine our language at its root. As human beings, we share 99% of our genetic make-up with our closest relative, the chimpanzee. Therefore, by studying the communication abilities and development of language in chimps and other great apes, we can learn more about our own language capabilities and ourselves. Research on chimps Lana The first chimp to be taught by this system, called Lana, succeeded in producing strings of Yerkish symbols, such as Please Tim give apple or Question you give coke to Lana in cup . She could also put together new combinations of lexigrams for objects for which there was no word in her vocabulary. When she wanted an orange, for example she produced the signs Question Tim give apple which-is orange. Washoe Also in the early 1970s, a chimpanzee named Washoe was taught to communicate in American Sign Language ASL by Beatrix and Allen Gardner at the University of Nevada in Reno. She was immersed in an environment where she learned to use ASL in daily interactions with her human companions. Washoe learned 132 different words in her time with the Gardners. Washoe even taught her own adopted son to sign without human intervention. Although Washoe has been taught signs that she uses intentionally such as the sign for orange when she wants an orange, but she does not put them together according to rules. That is, her communication lacks syntax. That is, she has characteristics of communicate the exact meaning of the word, arbitrariness but she could not use rules to form the sentences. Finally, she requires intensive training to learn signs, unlike the way human children learn language and so lacks the inmate ability of expose language without special training. What she has learned is impressive, but it does not meet the criteria we established for human language. Kanzi Still more remarkable is the pigmy chimpanzee called Kanzi. Kanzis mother was taught Yerkish in the usual way, accompanied by her son, who appeared to take little interest in what was going on. But, when she left the project temporarily, Kanzi suddenly showed that he had picked up Yerkish simply by observing his mother being taught. By the age of five years, he was handling about150 words; at six he could respond successfully to around 300 different sentences in natural settings, using a transportable board with Yerkish symbols. One successful routine involved Kanzi naming any one of seventeen locations in the surrounding estate, such as tree-house, and then taking the human being there, with 100% accuracy. Clearly Kanzi was able to comprehend certain aspects of communication, although much of his conversation was only concerned with food. Koko In the 1960s and 1970s, Koko, a gorilla, was trained to use American Sign Language and spoken English simultaneously from one year of age; a sentence in ASL was used at the same time as a spoken English equivalent. She was put in an environment where ASL was used for about ten hours a day by a variety of human companions. By the age of 5 ½, she had mastered 246 signs of ASL, such as alligator, cake, and pour. More importantly, she had started to put these separate signs together into two-word combinations such as Food-more, , and No-gorilla, many of which she could not have received from her human companions. A toy zebra was called a white tiger, a cigarette lighter a bottle match and a mask a face hat Sarah Anne and David Premack began in 1966 to work with a chimpanzee named Sarah. Rather than treat the chimp like a human child, David Premack decided to try to find and use the best possible training procedure. The language used was also atypical. Instead of ASL, Premack used differently shaped and colour plastic chips. With each chip he arbitrarily associated an English word. Communication between the trainers and Sarah involved placing these chips on the language board. Sarah was taught how to do one type of sentence at a time. Typically, her task was to choose an appropriate chip from a choice of two or to carry out a task indicated on the language board. Premack intended to teach Sarah the names of objects as well as the names of categories of objects. He originally claimed to have taught her 130 signs, including category names such as colour and concepts such as same and different. Nim Chimpsky In the late 1970s, Herbert Terrace began a project similar to that of the Gardnersquot; with a chimpanzee he humorously named Nim Chimpsky hoping that when Nim learned language, the joke would be on Noam chomsky, the noted linguist who claimed such a thing was impossible. Terracequot;s concern was to hat a chimp could acquire and display some use of grammar. Terrace believed that evidence of human language capability was the use of grammar and not just the use of signs. By the time Nim was four years old, he had acquired 125 signs, and Terrace felt Nim had indeed acquired human language abilities as well. This project was the first to videotape all interactions between chimp and trainer, however, and it was by reviewing these tapes that Terrace decided he must reverse his initial claim and instead acknowledge that the apequot;s use of signs was very different from human language. He noted that there were many dissimilarities between Nimquot;s and a human childquot;s acquisition of language. Nim, for example, almost never initiated signing. Terrace found that only 12% of Nimquot;s signs were spontaneous and a full 40% were mere repetitions of what the trainer had just signed. The trainer never noticed this subtle interaction at the time. In addition, Nimquot;s signing was invariably a request for food or social reward; he never made unsolicited statements or asked questions. Quite unlike a human child, he never took turns and was more likely to interrupt his trainerquot;s signing than not. There was also no evidence that Nim knew any grammar. His combinations had variable word order, and more importantly, Nim rarely went beyond two-word combinations; even when he did, the additional signs added no new information. For example, Nimquot;s longest utterance was give orange me give eat orange me eat orange give me eat orange give me you Latest research Savage-Rumbaugh has recently started to work with another species of chimpanzee. Pan paniscus, which she claims is more intelligent than Pan troglodytes, which has been used in all other projects. She claims that the new chimp she has been working with, Kanzi, has learned to comprehend spoken English just by being exposed to it and has spontaneously begun to use the keyboard with lexigrams to make requests and comment on his environment. Savage-Rumbaugh reports both anecdotal observations and the results of tests that might substantiate these astonishing claims. Again, these newest claims are difficult to accept without further confirmation and the demonstration of the kind of objective scrutiny and testing that was advocated at the inception of the Sherman and Austin project. Research on honey bees The best-known communication system in another species based on the pioneering work of Karl von Frisch, is the stylized dances of bees. When an exploring bee finds a suitable source of honey, it flies back to the hive and communicates its location to the other bees by dancing in semi-circles to right and to left of a straight axis, hence known as a wagging dance. The other bees join in this dance with the original messenger and then go off to find the honey. Three type of bee dance ; Round dance: indicates that the food is located within 20ft of hive; bee moves around in a circle; quality of food indicated by the number of repetitions and vivacity of dance. Sickle dance: indicates that the food is located 20-60ft of the hive; bee traces out a sickle-shaped figure eight on the wall; location of food is given by the angle made by the direction of the open end of the sickle with the verticalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬  corresponds to the same angle as the food source is from the sun; quality of food indicated by the number of repetitions and vivacity of the dance. .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 , .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .postImageUrl , .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 , .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137:hover , .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137:visited , .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137:active { border:0!important; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137:active , .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137 .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uccf5b4dde467a3c5054067e5d52bb137:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Essay about Self Reflection EssayTail- wagging dance: indicates that the food is located over 60ft from the hive; for dance pattern; location of food is given by angle of dance with verticalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ corresponds to same angle as food source is from the sun; the number of times per minute that the bee dances a complete pattern indicates the distance of the food source the slower the repetition rate, the longer the distance; quality of food indicated by the vivacity of the dance. The bees have a precise method of conveying information, adaptable to vertical or horizontal dimensions. However, the system depends on the sky being visible so that the bees can orientate themselves by the suns light. An overcast day makes communication difficult. Nor can the system deal with unusual directions. Bees do not succeed in communicating about honey suspended immediately above them or honey that is put directly in their hive. They have limited sign about the direction. As in an experiment when the food was placed at the top of a tower the worker bees fail to communicate the exact location. The reason was that they have no word for up in their language. The beesquot; dance is an effective system of communication, capable, in principle; of infinitely many different messages, and in this sense the beesquot; dance is infinitely variable, like human language. But unlike human language, the communication system of the bees is confined to a single subject. It is frozen and inflexible. For example, an experimenter forced a bee to walk to the food source. When the bee returned to the hive, it indicated a distance twenty-five times farther away than the food source actually was. The bee had no way of communicating the special circumstances or taking them into account in its message. This absence of creativity makes the beesquot; dance qualitatively different from human language. Birds song : structurally complex, and having at least two levels of constituent structure phrases and notes. But variations in songs appear not to be significant. Whale songs à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" It is still a mystery what these very social and intelligent animals really communicate although very different from the human languages, whale songs can not be easily dismissed as not being complex or expressive enough. Signalling Most animals possess some kind of signaling communication system. For example, among the spiders there is a complex system for courtship. The male spider, before he approaches his ladylove, goes through elaborate gestures to inform her he is indeed a spider and not a crumb or a fly to be eaten. These gestures are invariant. One never finds a creative spider changing or adding to the particular courtship ritual of his species Gesture A similar kind of gesture language is found among the fiddler crabs. There are forty different varieties, and each species uses its own particular claw waving movement to signal to another member of its clan. The timing, movement, and posture of the body never change from one time to another or from one crab to another within the particular species. Whatever the signal means, it is fixed. Only one meaning can be conveyed. There is not an infinite set of fiddler crab sentences. Nor can the signal be broken down into smaller elements, as is possible in any utterance of human language. Songs of birds Projects with birds usually involve parrots or the Indian Hill Mynah. These birds are selected for their ability to mimic human speech. The African Grey Parrot and the Indian Hill Mynah are generally considered to be the birds with the greatest ability to mimic human speech patterns but a number of other species mainly parrots such as the budgerigah can be trained to speak. Birds song are also a way of communication. Cetaceans Cetaceans, such as whales and dolphins, have been shown to be readily trainable to respond to gestures and sometimes to verbal and other acoustic commands. Also, many species have very complex acoustic communication systems. It has been hypothesized that it may be possible to train them to understand language encoded in either gestures or appropriate acoustic signals. Appropriate acoustic signals are assumed to be sounds that are similar to the natural communicative sounds that these animals produce. Human language is unique Human language is unique. While many species have communication systems, there is no other species which has a communication system with the properties of natural human languages. There are some properties which characterize human languages. These properties, taken together, distinguish human languages from other communication systems. productivity of human language Human languages create or borrow new words for new things whenever they are needed, I have just faxed someone through my modem; fax and modem are new objects with new words that scarcely existed ten years ago. Human language is inherently flexible and adapts to new circumstances and new things to say. Animal languages are inflexible because their stock of words is effectively fixed. Since Chomskys work of the 1950s, one of the main distinctive features of human language is seen to be its creativity in being able to communicate new messages. For example someone wants to say Twenty five sheep are gazing in the field, the English language rises to the occasion by supplying a grammatical form and vocabulary, despite the fact that nobody has ever wanted to say this sentence before or ever will again. Most of the sentences people produce or hear in the course of a day are new in so far as they have never been said or heard in that precise form before Animal languages seem fixed in a single form; a cat cannot say anything new, only repeat what has been said before. A bee can make new sentences, provided they concern the location of honey or hives. Human language is creative in the technical sense that any speaker can make up a sentence no-one has ever heard before; any listener can understand a novel sentence no-one has ever said before. Creativity is not just W. B. Yeats putting words together to create new sentences such as The unpurged images of day recede. All of us have the talent of creating new sentences, even if less effectively. Creativity is a basic fact of human language, not an added extra. Chomsky originally used the notion of creativity to attach associationist theories by arguing that in principle connections of stimulus and response cannot explain totally new sentences. The secret of creativity seems to be the grammatical system through which new sentences can be produced. One of the most crucial things that children have to acquire is the creativity of language. Displacement: The ability to communicate about things that are not present in space or time; we can a person whos not in front of us, about a movie we saw last week or want to see over the weekend, what we did over the break, etc. ; no form of animal communication appears to be able to do this: animal calls are stimulus-response driven: animals call when therequot;s danger or food, when they want to mate, etc. ; human use of language is not just a response to external or even internal emotional stimuli; we use language for qualitatively different purpose than animals do. In all animal communication systems the number of signals is fixed , finite; even if some of the signals are complex, there is no mechanism for systematically combining discrete units to create new signals; animals do not combine their calls and gestures in new ways to communicate new ideas; bees cannot come up with new dance patterns to communicate new information like danger, or the type of food availablethe absence of creativity makes bee dance qualitatively different from human language Arbitrariness A less definable characteristic of human language is its arbitrariness, which takes several forms. First there is no necessary connection between the object and the word that represents it. A rose could be called a sorp and smell as sweet. Different languages indeed call the same object by different names. English rose may indeed be rose in French but it is bara in Japanese and warda in Arabic. The connection between objects and words is largely arbitrary. Language is also arbitrary in that it relies on combinations of a small set of sounds or shapes that do not have meaning in themselves. The sounds / b / , /  ¾ / , / g / have no meaning separately; the question Whats an / ¾ /? Cannot be answered by explaining what / ¾ / means. Only when / ¾ / is combined with the other sounds of English to get /b ¾ g/ bag or /g ¾ b/ gab or blackguard or grabbing does the sound become meaningful. Phonemes and letters do not have meaning but they combine to form words . Animal languages in a sense have a limited list of words, like those Konrad Lorenz found in crows. In animal communication, a word is an entity of its own. Each of the monkeys cries has a distinctive meaning, snake, eagle, and so on. They cannot be decomposed into a small set of meaningless components like phonemes. Animals have a dictionary consisting of a limited number of signs but they do not have sound or writing systems. In human languages the set of words is open-ended, formed from a strictly limited set of components, whether phonemes, gestures, or letters. The fact that these symbols are themselves meaningless and arbitrary allows them to generate a vast stock of words. Though Roman alphabets vary slightly from one language to another, their 26 letters can encode, not only all the words in the Oxford English Dictionary, say, but all the words in the dictionaries of French, Italian, Malaysian, etc, as well, with a handful of additional symbols. Arbitrariness of the actual phonemes or letters is a highly useful characteristic that gives language its infinite flexibility, unlike the total rigidity of animal systems Phrase structure. Human languages depend upon a grammatical system that arranges the elements into a structure rather than just putting one sound or element after another. No other species have either this type of phrase structure in general or the specific grammatical configurations. The defenders of apes regard this requirement as an unfair demand; Sue Savage-Rumbaugh does not see why syntax should be the linguists holy grail and laments that the supposed primacy of syntax still held them in its thrall. Interpersonal Human languages is interpersonal. The use of language involves social interaction. When we use language in conversation, we make assumptions about what our listeners know and believe, and we bring to the conversation attitudes toward our listeners. .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b , .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .postImageUrl , .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b , .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b:hover , .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b:visited , .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b:active { border:0!important; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b:active , .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf03b0f5aab9571983c5bbe85b52c905b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Parts of a Sarcomere EssayOnes use of language varies depending on a variety of circumstances. Discreteness: Property of having internal structure: complex messages that are built up out of smaller parts; In human languages: sentences are composed of independent words; the words are composed of individual sounds which can be recombined to form new words which can form new sentences; whereas animal communication systems each message is an indivisible unit. Overall then, while there is considerable uncertainty about many of the details, it seems that human language is indeed the sole property of the human race, if language is defined by the above characteristics. Prevarication: Speakers can intentionally make utterances that are false or meaningless. But it is now well known that many animals use behaviour explicitly designed to deceive or mislead. Signing apes have been observed to use their sign language to send food-competitors away. Cultural transmission:quot; Language is passed from one language user to the next, consciously or unconsciously. Conclusion Many linguists still believe that apes have no real grasp of human language , but are merely imitating their human companions. They insist that while apes may understand individual symbols or words, they do not understand the concepts of syntax, or how words are put together to form a complete idea. However, evidence is continually proving that the non human primate mind is capable of advanced thought . Some people speak of animal languages, while others argue they are not complex or expressive enough to count as true languages. Also, there are some significant differences, which separate human language from the animal languages even when they are most complex; the underlying principles are not thought to be related. Historical linguistics: Human language is creative and flexible. It changes with the passage of time. When we study language changes historically it is called historical linguistics. Any of the linguistic rules identified in Linguistics Assumptions and Principles may be changed: phonemes may be changed, added or removed, morphological rules may be added, changed, or lost, and even syntactical rules might be modified. Semantic rules and the lexicon change much more rapidly than the other three. Lexical changes the addition, modification, or removal of words from the general lexicon are perhaps the quickest changes in language. The semantic change of words may change broaden, narrow, or even shift in meaning. History of the English Language Languages change over time. Slowly, to be sure, but they do change. English is measured in three cataclysmic changes that generally coincide with historical events that had a profound effect on the language. The first appearance of English, as such, was when the Saxons invaded Britain. This form of English is called Old English and dates from approximately 449 to 1066, when the Normans conquered England, beginning the period of Middle English. It was during this time period 1066-1500 that many of the Latinate words used in English today were introduced into the language, as well as Latinate spellings. Around 1500, there was a great vowel shift, which brought the language into Modern English, which is where it is today. Based on this measure approximately 500 years per shift, we may expect major changes in the language today. The Great Vowel Shift in English changed the seven long tense vowels of Middle English and moved them up on the tongue. Fromkin and Rodman posit that the Great Vowel Shift is responsible for many of the spelling inconsistencies today. Language change, however, is a highly regular process. Causes of language changes Articulatory simplification vTo make articulation of words more and more simple. People leave certain complicated consonant clusters. People want articulatory simplification so they avoid complex clusters. This is the reason of changing in pronunciation. The simplification of sounds basically states that certain sounds are easier to pronounce than others, so the natural tendency of the speakers is to modify the hard-to-say sounds to easier ones. An example of this would be the proto-Romance word /camera/ room changing into early French /camra/. It is hard to say /m/ and /r/ one after another, so it was simplified by adding /b/ in between, to /cambra/ . A more recent example is the English word nuclear, which many people pronounce as nucular. Natural process Neogrammarians stated that changes are automatic and mechanical, and therefore cannot be observed or controlled by the speakers of the language. They found that what to a human ear is a single sound is actually a collection of very similar sounds. They call it low-level deviation from an idealized form. They argue that language change is simply a slow shift of the idealized form by small deviations Immigration of speakers The children incorrectly learning the language of their parents, doesnquot;t work either. Letquot;s take an extreme case in the form of immigrants. What is observed is that children of immigrants almost always learn the language of their friends at school regardless of the parentsquot; dialect or original language. Children of British immigrants in the United States nearly always speak with one of the many regional American accents. So in this case, the parentsquot; linguistic contribution becomes less important than the social group the child is in. Social and cultural identity At the beginning a small part of a population pronounces certain words that have, for example, the same vowel, differently than the rest of the population. This occurs naturally since humans donquot;t all reproduce exactly the same sounds. However, at some later point in time, for some reason this difference in pronunciation starts to become a signal for social and cultural identity. Others of the population who wish to be identified with the group either consciously or unknowingly adopt this difference, exaggerate it, and apply it to change the pronunciation of other words. If given enough time, the change ends up affecting all words that possess the same vowel, and so that this becomes a regular linguistic sound change. We can argue that similar phenomena apply to the grammar and to the lexicon of languages. An interesting example is that of computer-related words creeping into standard American language, like bug, crash, net, email, etc. This would conform to the theory in that these words originally were used by a small group i. e. computer scientists, but with the boom in the Internet everybody wants to become technology-savvy. And so these computer science words start to filter into the mainstream language. We are currently at the exaggeration phase, where people are coining weird terms like cyberpad and dotcom which not only drive me crazy but also didnquot;t exist before in computer science. Changes in languages Phonological change There have been many phonological changes between Old English and Modern English as the rules governing flapped and glottal stop variants of t have been added to American English . an important set of extensive sound changes affecting the long tense vowels occurred at the end of the Middle English period.. Lexical change From old English times to the present, new words have continuously been added to the English language. As English has borrowed a lot of words from French language. As, text, prince, judge, prayer, religion, army, navy, enemy, fashion, etc. In this way vocabulary of a language also changed. Changes in morphology Language changes have occurred in shape of words. As suffix are borrowed from French to make new words. People assume that a word has a morphological composition that it didnt originally have root + affix, usually and remove that affix, creating a new word: back formation The assumed model was the class of regular plural nouns ending in -s Another model is agent nouns in à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"er , -er usually added to verbs to form an agent noun. Sometimes removed from nouns to form new verbs as letch from lecher. Historically the inflections had caused mutation of the vowel before them o to e from old to eldest Changes in pronunciation Linguistic change occurs over time; for example, the differences in spelling and pronunciation between Middle English niht and Modern English night represent linguistic changes that developed between roughly the fourteenth and the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries. Semantics Changes In old time one word is used for only one specific thing but now we use one word for many things. As in past word aunt is used for maternal aunt only but now for any aged relative. When one word change from limited to expending use it is called semantics broadness. One word is very comprehensively used in old time but now that is used for a specific thing. When the meaning of a word become less general than it is called semantics narrowness as we word hound for only hunting dog but in past it was used for every dog, Syntactic changes Rule addition A syntactic rule that has been added to English since the Old English period is the particle Movement . as the sentence pairs of the type john threw out the fish and John threw out did not occur in Old English. Rule Loss A syntactic rule that has been lost from English is the morpho syntactic rule of Adjective Agreement. At one time adjectives required endings that had to agree with the head noun in case, number, and gender. This rule is no longer found in English, since most of the inflectional endings of English have been lost. Changes of verbs Contemporary English makes a distinction between auxiliary verbs and main verb, a distinction reflected in questions only auxiliary verb fronted in question, as in can you leave ? negative sentences only auxiliary verb can take the contracted negative nquot;t, as in you canquot;t leave and tage questions only auxiliary verb can appear in tag, as in you can leave, can,t you?. Focusing now only on so-called modal verbs can, must, it is interesting to note that prior to the sixteenth century thes syntactic distinctions between main verb and auxiliary did not exist. at that time it was possible for main to take not, and examples such as the following c an be found in Shakespeares writing. I deny it not. I donquot;t deny it. Forbid him not. Dont forbid him Conclusion The changes that took place between Old English and Modern English are typical of the kinds of changes that all human language undergo over time, and after enough years have passed the latest language can be very different from its ancestor language. Moreover, language change offers important indirect evidence about the nature of human language namely, that it is rule-governed . we see that major language changes occur in English language during Old English and Middle English period are best viewed as in the sets of rules characterizing.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Morality of War essays

Morality of War essays In the wake of the destruction of September 11th, 2001, the United States of America were faced with an insecure future. With massive amounts of anti-American sentiments present all over the world, along with the growing threat of more terrorism against the US, President George W. Bush was forced to make a decision on whether or not to send the country to war. The war in Iraq was morally justified because Bush had a moral obligation to protect the interests of US citizens. Iraq presented a great threat to the United States as a whole, with the weapons of mass destruction that American allies believed to exist, posing destruction of insurmountable amounts if utilized by Saddam Hussein against American lives. Hussein, the leader of Iraq, had been killing massive amounts of his citizens in genocide as well. Bush had enough evidence to know that American lives were threatened, so his decision to go to war with Iraq was morally justified. The United States had been subject to terrorism from other countries in the Middle East for years, most notably the attacks on the World Trade Center on 9/11. To protect the US from further attacks from the Middle East, Bush led the country into war to put a stop to the terror. In Iraq Bush had a country that had provided aide to terrorism and was openly opposing UN orders regarding the weapons of mass destruction. Bush chose Iraq as a country to make an example of, in order to prevent more terrorism attacks on the US, and thus protect the lives of US citizens. Iraq was setting the stage for other countries to attack the US. In showing that they could sidestep the UN whenever it wanted, Iraq was in essence laying a blueprint to show how to terrorize America. With no strong deterrence from the US or its allies, Iraq was free to terrorize anyone in ways that Hussein saw fit. Bush knew that invading Iraq and taking Hussein out of power was going to be a relatively easy task, which is ...

Friday, November 22, 2019

A Rhetorical Analysis of U2s Sunday Bloody Sunday

A Rhetorical Analysis of U2s Sunday Bloody Sunday In this critical essay, composed in 2000, student Mike Rios offers a rhetorical analysis of the song Sunday Bloody Sunday by the Irish rock band U2. The song is the opening track of the groups third studio album, War (1983). The lyrics to Sunday Bloody Sunday can be found on U2s official website. The Rhetoric of U2s Sunday Bloody Sunday By Mike Rios U2 have always produced rhetorically powerful songs. From the spiritually driven I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For to the blatantly sexual If You Wear That Velvet Dress, audiences have been persuaded to examine their religious doubts as well as to give in to their emotions. Never a band content in sticking to one style, their music has evolved and taken many forms. Their more recent songs show a level of complexity so far unsurpassed in music, drawing heavily on the ambiguity of paradox in songs like So Cruel while evoking sensory overload with the aid of the list structure in Numb. But one of the most powerful songs dates back to their early years, when their style was Senecan-like, seemingly simpler and more direct. Sunday Bloody Sunday stands out as one of U2’s finest songs. Its rhetoric is successful because of its simplicity, not despite it. Written in part as a response to the events of January 30, 1972 when the Paratroop Regiment of the British Army killed 14 people and wounded another 14 during a civil rights demonstration in Derry, Ireland, Sunday Bloody Sunday takes hold of the listener instantly. It is a song speaking against not only the British Army, but the Irish Republican Army as well. Bloody Sunday, as it has come to be known, was only one act in a cycle of violence claiming many innocent lives. The Irish Republican Army was certainly contributing to the bloodshed. The song begins with Larry Mullen, Jr. beating his drums in a martial rhythm that connotes visions of soldiers, of tanks, of guns. Although not original, it is a successful use of musical irony, enveloping a song of protest in the sounds usually associated with those it is protesting against. The same can be said of its use in the cadence-like foundations of Seconds and Bullet the Blue Sky. Having grabbed hold of the listener’s attention, Th e Edge and Adam Clayton join in with lead and bass guitars respectively. The riff is as close to concrete as sound can get. It is massive, almost solid. Then again, it has to be. U2 is endeavoring upon a subject and theme wide in scope. The message carries a great deal of significance. They must connect with every ear, every mind, every heart. The pounding beat and the heavy riff transport the listener to the scene of the killings, appealing to pathos. A violin glides in and out to add a softer, delicate touch. Caught in the musical attack, it reaches out to the listener, letting him or her know that the song’s grip will not strangle, but the firm hold must be kept nonetheless. Before any words are sung, an ethical appeal has taken shape. The persona in this song is Bono himself. The audience knows he and the rest of the band are Irish and that, although not personally familiar with the event that gives the song its title, they have seen other acts of violence while growing up. Knowing the band’s nationality, the audience trusts them as they sing about the struggle in their homeland. Bono’s first line makes use of aporia. I can’t believe the news today, he sings. His words are the same words spoken by those who have learned of yet another attack in the name of a great cause. They express the confusion such violence leaves in its aftermath. The murdered and the wounded are not the only victims. Society suffers as some individuals continue to try and comprehend while others take arms and join in the so-called revolution, continuing the vicious cycle. Epizeuxis is common in songs. It helps to make songs memorable. In Sunday Bloody Sunday, epizeuxis is a necessity. It is necessary because the message against violence must be drilled into the audience. With this end in mind, epizeuxsis is modified to diacope throughout the song. It is found in three different instances. The first is the erotesis How long, How long must we sing this song? How long? In asking this question, Bono not only replaces the pronoun I with we (which serves to draw the members of the audience closer to him and to themselves), he also implies the answer. The instinctive reply is that we should not have to sing this song any longer. In fact, we should not have to sing this song at all. But the second time he asks the question, we are not so sure of the answer. It ceases to be erotesis and functions as epimone, again for emphasis. Furthermore, it is somewhat akin to ploce, in that its essential meaning changes. Before repeating the How long? question, Bono uses enargia to vividly recreate violence. The images of broken bottles under children’s feet [and] bodies strewn across a dead end street appeal to pathos in an effort to disturb the listeners. They are not disturbing because they are too horrible to imagine; they are disturbing because they do not have to be imagined. These images appear too often on television, in newspapers. These images are real. But Bono cautions against acting solely based on the pathos of a situation. To keep his pathetic appeal from working too well, Bono sings that he won’t heed the battle call. A metaphor for refusing the temptation to avenge the dead or hurt, this phrase conveys the strength needed in doing so. He employs antirrhesis to support his statement. If he allows himself to be seduced into becoming a rebel for the sake of revenge, his back will be put against the wall. He will have no further choices in life. Once he picks up a gun he will have to use it. It is also an appeal to logos, weighing the consequences of his actions beforehand. When he repeats How long? the audience realizes that it has become a real question. People are still being killed. People are still killing. It is a fact made all too clear on November 8, 1987. As a crowd gathered at Enniskillen town in Fermanagh, Ireland, to observe Remembrance Day, a bomb placed by the IRA was detonated killing 13 people. This sparked the now infamous dehortatio during a performance of Sunday Bloody Sunday that same evening. Fuck the revolution, Bono declared, reflecting his anger and the anger of his fellow Irishmen at another senseless act of violence. The second diacope is tonight we can be as one. Tonight, tonight. Utilizing hysteron proteron to emphasize tonight and therefore the immediacy of the situation, U2 offers a solution, a way in which peace can be restored. Clearly an appeal to pathos, it evokes the emotional comfort gained by human contact. The paradox is easily dismissed by the hopefulness resonating in the words. Bono tells us it is possible to become one, to unite. And we believe himwe need to believe him. The third diacope is also the major epimone in the song. Sunday, bloody Sunday is, after all, the central image. The use of diacope differs in this phrase. By placing bloody within the two Sundays, U2 demonstrates how significant this day is. To many, thinking of the date will forever be linked with remembering the brutality inflicted on that date. Surrounding bloody with Sunday, U2 forces the audience to experience, at least in some way, the link. In doing so, they provide a manner by which the audience can further unite. U2 employs various other figures to persuade their audience. In the erotesis, there’s many lost, but tell me who has won? U2 extends the battle metaphor. There is an example of paronomasia in lost. In relation to the battle metaphor, which is now the struggle to unite, lost refers to the losers, those who have fallen victim to the violence by either partaking in it or experiencing it. Lost also refers to those who do not know whether to refrain or take part in the violence, and do not know which path to follow. Paronomasia is used earlier in dead end street. Here dead means physically the final portion of the street. It also means lifeless, like the bodies strewn across it. The two sides of these words express the two sides of the Irish struggle. On one hand there is the idealistic cause for freedom and independence. On the other there is the result of trying to attain these goals through terrorism: bloodshed. The battle metaphor continues when Bono sings the trenches dug within our hearts. Appealing to emotion again, he compares souls with battlefields. The paronomasia of torn apart’ in the next line supports the metaphor by illustrating the casualties (both those physically torn and hurt by bombs and bullets, and those torn and separated by allegiances to the revolution). The list of victims is displayed as a tricolon to suggest no importance of one over any other. Mother’s children, brothers, sisters, they are all equally cherished. They are all also equally vulnerable, likely to fall victim to the often random attacks. Finally, the last stanza contains a variety of rhetorical devices. Like the paradoxical solution suggested in the opening stanza, the paradox of fact being fiction and television reality is not difficult to accept. To this day there remains controversy over the shootings that occurred more than twenty-five years ago. And with both major protagonists in the violence distorting the truth for their own sake, fact is certainly capable of being manipulated into fiction. The terrible images of lines 5 and 6 support the television paradox. This phrase and the antithesis we eat and drink while tomorrow they die add to the sense of perplexity and urgency. There is also a trace of irony in enjoying basic human elements while the next day someone else dies. It causes the listener to ask him or herself, who are they? It causes him or her to wonder if it could be a neighbor, or a friend, or a family member that dies next. Many probably think of those who have died as statistics, numbers in a grow ing list of murdered. The juxtaposition of we and they confronts the tendency to distance oneself from unknown victims. It asks that they be considered as people, not numbers. Another opportunity for unification is thus presented. Besides uniting with each other, we must also unite with the memories of those slain. As the song heads towards the closing diacope, one last metaphor is employed. To claim the victory Jesus won, sings Bono. The words immediately connote the blood sacrifice particular to so many cultures. The listener hears victory, but also remembers that Jesus had to die in order to achieve it. This makes an appeal to pathos, stirring religious emotions. Bono wants the listener to know that it is not an easy journey he is pleading for them to embark on. It is difficult, but well worth the price. The final metaphor also appeals to ethos by linking their struggle to that of Jesus, and therefore making it morally right. Sunday Bloody Sunday remains as powerful today as it was when U2 first performed it. The irony of its longevity is that it is still relevant. U2 would no doubt rather they did not have to sing it anymore. As it stands, they will probably have to continue singing it.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Employee Safety in Nursing Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Employee Safety in Nursing - Term Paper Example Emphasis is given on the failures of the relevant rules but also on the causes that have led to the continuous expansion of the problem. Suggestions are made for resolving the problem, or at least for controlling the further expansion of the problem. The barriers and the obstacles that the suggested measures are expected to face are also presented. It is concluded that employee safety in nursing may be difficult to be appropriately promoted; the nature of the particular profession, being related to health, seems that hides the potential risks for the sector’s employees. Also, the supportive role of nurses can be considered as opposed to dynamic contests, even for claiming rights, which are recognized by the law. The fact that nurses are at a rather low position in the organizational hierarchy is another factor preventing individuals working in the specific position to ask for the protection of their rights. The legislative texts and practices used in US for ensuring the safety of nurses are mentioned in order to show, at least indicatively, the progress made in the particular field and to explain the conditions in which such measures are likely to be developed – since suggestions are made for the increase of safety of nurses in healthcare units of various size. 2. Employee safety in nursing Employee safety is a complex concept; in nursing, the challenges faced by regulators trying to control the problem are many – mostly because of the continuous exposure of nurses to patients with various psychological problems, a fact that increases the chances for a violent event against nurses in the workplace. On the other hand, the volume of work in the specific sector is usually high; the needs and the rights of employees are often ignored due to the lack of time availability; the health problems of patients are set as a priority, an approach which can be accepted but up to a level. Employees in the healthcare sector have equal rights to health and s afety, as also the patients. The nature of their work should not be used as an excuse for ignoring the law focusing on the health and safety of employees in the particular sector. The problem is higher for nurses; their direct involvement in the treatment of many diseases on a daily basis makes their profession extremely risky – referring to the exposure of nurses to infections of various types due to the lack of adequate safety measures. On the other hand, due to the continuous development of technology, the complexity and the volume of services in healthcare sector have been increased. The health risks for nurses have been significantly increased, a fact that proves the inability of the state to develop effective rules for ensuring health and safety in nursing. It should be noted that the causes of the problem can be identified not only in the advances of technology in the health care sector but also in the increase of the number of cases handled daily. As the number of peo ple having access to healthcare services is increased, so do the risks for nurses. The continuous increase of immigrants, who are exposed to many infections due to their living conditions, is another factor threatening the health of nurses. At the same time, the training of nurses on health and safety is not always appropriate; under the pressure of time – for covering emergent needs in healthcare units across the country – the information provided to nurses regarding their health and safety

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Merits and potentials of adopting various Information Systems Essay

Merits and potentials of adopting various Information Systems - Essay Example This coverage led to the promotion of the luxury watercraft build by BMW and acquired by the celebrities. The company being aware of this scenario has decided to take advantage of this media promotion and expand it’s business. Strategy meetings have been organized. The decision to invest further in the business at this particular time is a wise one, and would prove to be a profitable one in the long run. However, to ensure the success of the expansion plan, certain factors needed to be critically examined and their solutions provided. In this report, the problems that could possibly be a hindrance to the growth of the company are identified, discussed and their solutions stated. The business has nine departments which are interrelated. Each department has it’s separate staff, according to the specific requirements of that department. A study was conducted identifying the areas of concern in each department. Some have more room for improvement while others have less, but it is noticeable that all need to be modernized and up to dated to face the challenges of the competitive market. The company started in late 1800 century now needs to equip itself with the modern techniques to achieve maximum profit. The identified areas of concern in each department are discussed in the following section. Discussion on the Identified Issues: It is a matter of concern for the Bank and the investors whether the company will be able to withstand the effects of expansion and would be able to deliver as desired. For this, a study of the various processes involved within the business is carried out and areas of concern are highlighted. One of the departments is the Warehouse, where deliveries from the suppliers are stored and forwarded when ordered for. The materials stored are of various characteristics. Some can be kept for longer periods of time while others are perishable. One major concern arising here is that proper and timely placements need to be made in order to save stock and ensure no delay in further processing using these materials. Secondly, there is lack of knowledge regarding the arrival time of the raw material to the warehouse. The storage capacity cannot be anticipated due to this issue as well. The manufacturing department is the core of this business setup. However, it is not the most well-managed one, according to my findings. Orders are made to the suppliers when a particular material is in demand by the manufacturing department. There is no information kept by the manufacturing department on the availability of a material or its transportability prior to the placement of it’s order (assumption). This can result in a delay in manufacturing and ultimately, delay in delivery to the customer. For a company of such magnitude and reputation, this should not be acceptable. There is also uncertainty as to the availability of skilled staff for increased manufacturing. As highly skilled personnel are required in the manufactu ring department, a provision in the form of apprentice scheme is in place to fill for any shortages. Whether the trainees would meet the shortfall if it occurs and whether there is information present

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Salem Witch Trials Essay Example for Free

Salem Witch Trials Essay The Crucible- Web Quest 1. Crucible- a severe, searching test or trial. 2. Spectral evidence- is a form of evidence based upon dreams and visions. 3. Witch Hunt- An Investigation carried out ostensibly to uncover subversive actlvltles but actually used to harass and undermine those with differing views. a. Recently uncovered files reveal the case of Raymond Ginger, a Harvard professor who was asked to resign in 1954 because he refused to respond to questions over whether he and his wife were Communists. . Yes, It qualifies as an Investigation to uncover ubversive activities. 4. a. The two events that had a profound influence on Millers work were the depression and the war that immediately followed it. b. The Crucible was his masterpiece. c. Arthur was married to famous actress Marilyn Monroe 5. Mather treated some of the afflicted, wrote Journals and advised the Judges. Evidently Mather was quite arrogant and liked prestige. 6. a. Nothing about this trial was inevitable. Only an unfortunate combination of an ongoing frontier war, economic conditions, congregational strife, teenage boredom, and personal ealousies can account for the spiraling accusations, trials, and executions that occurred in the spring and summer of 1692. b. It could have been from stress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional psychosis. c. Increase Mather was the man who pleaded for the dismissal of spectral evidence, it was ironic because he was the father of Cotton who had wrote the Journals. d. It suggests that the trials were somewhat of congregational feuds which played a major role In determining who lived and died. 7. a. Their friendship came to an abrupt end in 1 952, at the height of the so-called Communist witch hunt conducted by the House un-American Activities Committee. b. He wrote It because It drew parallels between the 17th century Salem Which Trials and the Red Scare of the 1950s. c. The film was called On the Waterfront it testified a friendly witness. 8. a. McCarthyism was an intense effort to root out Communists from any part of America even if it went against American values. The Second Red Scare was the time in which McCarthyism came bout. b. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators and union activists. c. He was a Republican U. S. Senator who created the idea that there were lots of communists or spies in the U. S. He was the man who McCarthyism came from. d. The government eventually censored McCarthy, and later In life he died from Alcoholism, e. McCarthyism was carried out in many ways. It started out with only the talk of McCarthy because people believed him. Then laws, (which were unconstitutional and wrong), were passed, making people go along with McCarthyism even more because it was now everywhere. Along with that, many cases went to trial during that time. f. To be blacklisted by the HUAC meant to be shunned,fired from your work, and unable to get a Job basically anywhere. Many careers and reputations were ruined, and clearing 1 OF2 given two options. They could speak in defense of themselves or let the Committee come to a verdict without a hearing. h. Execution or being sent to prison.